The basics of Music theory,learn more about music theory,so you will more easy to play height music cajon,ukulele and kalimba

- Nov 20, 2018-

It is also necessary to have certain knowledge of music theory. It is the premise of Transcription (music) . A musician who knows nothing about music theory is only at an intermediate level!


Music theory tutorial


(1) The sound is generated due to the vibration of the object.

There are many sounds that can be felt in the natural world for our human hearing, but not all sounds can be used as materials for music. The sounds used in music are specially selected by people in their long-term life practice in order to express their own life or thoughts and feelings. These tones form a fixed system for expressing musical thoughts and shaping musical images.

The sound has four main characteristics: high and low, strong and weak, long and short, and timbre.

The level of the sound is determined by the number of times (frequency) of the object at a certain time. The number of vibrations is high, the sound is high; the number of vibrations is small, and the sound is low. The length of the sound is determined by the difference in the duration of the sound. The duration of the sound is long and the sound is long; the duration of the sound is short and the sound is short. The strength of the sound is determined by the amplitude (the amplitude of the vibration of the sound). The amplitude is large and the sound is strong; the amplitude is small and the sound is weak. The tone is different depending on the nature, shape, and overtone of the sounding body. The above four properties of sound are very important in musical performance, but the height and length of sound are of the most significant significance.


Try the song "Great China" as an example. Whether you use vocals to sing or use musical instruments to play, sing or sing loudly, no matter what tune you use to sing or play, although the strength and tone of the sound There have been changes, but it is still easy to recognize this melody. However, if the pitch or time of the song is changed, the music image will be seriously damaged immediately. Therefore, the most important thing for a melody is the pitch and time value.


Due to the rules and irregularities of the vibration state of the sound, the sound is divided into two categories: tone and noise. Music is mainly used in music, but noise is also an indispensable part of music performance. The sound of a drum is a kind of noise, but it is a regular noise.


(2) The sum of sounds with fixed pitch used in music is called the tone system. 

The sounds in the tone system are arranged in ascending or descending order, called the sound column. The sounds in the tone system are called sound levels. The sound level has two basic levels and a varying sound level.


In the tone system, seven sound levels with independent names are called basic sound levels. The name of the basic level is marked by both letters and lyrics. See the chart on page 7 of this book for details.


Two adjacent sounds of the same name are called octaves. The sound that is raised or lowered by the basic level is called the varying level. Raise the basic pitch to a semitone with "L" or ""; lower the semitone with "down" or "" to indicate; raise the full tone with "re-emerge" or "x" to indicate; lower the full tone with "reduce" " or " " to indicate; the restoration is indicated by " ".


(3) The range has the total range and the individual range and the vocal and instrumental range.

The sound zone is part of the entire sound field and has three types: high-pitched, mid-range, and low-range.


The division of the sound regions of various vocals is often inconsistent. For example, the high-pitched area of the bass is the bass area of the alto. The characteristic sounds of each zone play a major role in the performance of music. The high-pitched area generally has crisp and sharp characteristics, while the low-range area often gives a thick and bulky feeling.


(4) In music, an isolated sound or chord cannot shape the image of music, but multiple sounds that have nothing to do with each other are also difficult to express musical thoughts.


The sounds used in music are always linked together in a certain relationship. Many sounds (generally no more than seven) that are linked together according to a certain relationship form a system and are centered on one sound (the main sound). This system is called a tone.


The tones in the tone are arranged in order of high and low (upstream or down), and the main to the main tones are called scales.


In the tone system, a sound that acts as a pillar and gives a sense of stability is called a stable sound. The sound that gives people a sense of instability is called unstable sound. Unstable sounds have the property of proceeding to a stable sound, and this characteristic is called a tendency. Unstable is based on its tendency to stabilize the sound, which is called solution. The stability and instability of sound are relative, not absolute. A certain tone (or chord) is stable in one mode system and may be unstable in another mode system. Even in the same mode, some stable tones may be temporarily in an unstable state due to the difference in harmony processing.


(5) The major mode is a mode consisting of seven tones, in which the stable tones become a major chord.

The minor tones are also composed of seven tones, in which the stable tones become a minor triad.


The major tone and the third note above it are three major, because this interval best describes the color of the big tone. The minor tonal character and the third tones above it are slightly third, because this interval best describes the minor color. In the size adjustment system, the first, third, and sixth grades are used for stabilization. The stability levels of the three stable sound levels are different, the first level is the most stable, and the third level and the fifth level are less stable.


The three stable tones and their stability can only be expressed when they are combined with the main chords. If other non-sounding chords are used, there is no stability.


Levels II, IV, VI, and VII are unstable sound levels, and under appropriate conditions, they exhibit a tendency to stabilize the sound in a second degree relationship.


(6) The relationship between the two pitch levels on the pitch is called the interval.

The two tones played in succession form a melody interval. The two tones played simultaneously and the sound path. The melody intervals should be staggered when writing, and should be aligned up and down when writing. In the interval, the sound below is called the root sound, and the sound above is called the crown sound.


The melody interval is divided into three types: up, down, and parallel according to the direction in which it is performed. The root and crown of the interval are reversed, called the interval shift.


The transposition of the interval can be performed within one octave or more than eight degrees. The root or crown can be moved when the interval is indexed, or the root and crown can be moved together.


There are the following rules when transposing:

1. All intervals are divided into two groups, which can be reversed from each other.

2. The sum of the intervals that can be reversed is 9. Therefore, if we want to know that a certain interval is converted into a few intervals, we can subtract the number of the original interval from 9, for example: seven degrees (7) after the index (9 - 7 = 2) into two degrees , and so on.


Except for pure intervals, other intervals become the opposite intervals after they are turned:

After the pure interval is transposed, it becomes a pure interval, and after the large interval is transposed, it becomes a small interval. After the small interval is transposed, it becomes a large interval. After the transposition is converted, it becomes a reduction procedure, but after increasing the octave, it is not reduced by one degree, but by octave. After the transposition is transposed, it becomes the accent interval, and after multiplying the interval, it becomes the double-decreasing interval, and after the sub-shift is converted, it becomes the multiplication interval.


(7) According to the impression produced by the sound process and the sound process, the intervals can be divided into two categories: concord and disharmony.


The sound that sounds sweet and blends is called Concord. Concord intervals can be divided into three types:

1. The extremely complete harmony interval is the pure one that is completely unified and the almost perfect one.

2. The fully consonant interval is the pure fifth and pure four degrees of the sound.

3. The incomplete consonant interval is not the size of the three dimensions and the size of the six degrees.


The characteristic of a very complete consonant interval and a fully consonant interval is that the sound is a bit empty, and the sound without a fully consonant interval is fuller.


Sounds that are harsher and less integrated with each other are called uncoordinated intervals. The size of the second degree, the size of the seventh degree and all the addition and subtraction intervals (including the increase of four, minus five intervals) multiplication, double reduction of the interval belong to this category.


(8) Composition of chords

A, three chords: A chord that is superimposed by three tones in a three-degree relationship called a triad.


The main types of triads are:


(1) Junior chords: The root to third is a major third, the third to fifth is a small third, and the root to fifth is a pure fifth.

Five-tone...5 1 small third

Three-tone...3 6

Root sound...1 4 major third


(2) The minor chord: the root to third is a small third, the third to fifth is a major third, and the root to fifth is a pure fifth. 

Five tones...6 7 3 or or major third

Three-tone...4 5 1 small third

Root sound... 2 3 6


The types that are less used are:

(2) Adding three chords: the root to third and third to fifth are all major thirds, and the root to fifth is five degrees.

Five-tone...#5 #1 major third (5/4)

Three-tone...3 6

Root sound...1 4 major third


(3) minus three chords: the root to third and third to fifth are all small third, and the root to fifth is minus five degrees.

Five-tone...4 small third

Three sounds... 2

Root sound...7 small third


Both the size and the chord are concord chords, because the intervals involved are the consonant intervals (large third, small third, pure five degrees). Adding or subtracting the three chords is a non-coincidence chord, because the five degrees and five degrees are non-coordinated intervals. The triple chord has a feature of outward expansion, and the reduced chord has a feature of inward contraction. In the triad, the lower note is called the root note, or the first note, represented by the number 1; the middle note is called the third note, represented by the number 3; the upper note is called the fifth note, represented by the number 5.


B, seventh chord: A chord that is superposed by four tones in a three-degree relationship. It is called the seventh chord. The three tones below the seventh chord are the same as the ones in the triad, called the root, third, and fifth. The fourth sound is called the seventh sound because it is seven degrees away from the root. It is represented by the number 7. The name of the seventh chord is also derived from this seven degree.


All seven chords are uncoordinated chords because they contain a seven-degree interval that is uncoordinated. Seven chords can be divided into multiple chord forms of different nature:


a, the third chord is increased by seven degrees - called "big seven chords", such as: C big seven, F big seven. 

Seven sounds...7 3 major third

Five sounds...5 1

Three-tone...3 6 small third

Root sound...1 4 major third


b. The small three chords plus the small seven degrees are called "small seven chords", such as: Dm7, Em7.

Seven sounds...1 2 5

Five tones...6 7 3 minor third degree or or > major third degree

Three-tone...4 5 1

Root sound... 2 3 6 small third


c, junior chord plus small seven degree one called "big three small seven chord", (also known as "size seven chords" or seven chords) such as: C7, D7, G7.

Seven sounds... 4 2

Five-tone...2 7 small third degree or > major third degree

Three-tone...7 5

Root sound...5 3 small third


d, minus three chords plus a small seven degree one called "three small seven chords", (also known as "half minus seven chords")

Seven sounds...6 > Three degrees

Five sounds...4

Three-tone...2 small third


e, minus three chords plus or minus seven degrees, said "minus seven chords":

Seven sounds...4 > small third

Five sounds... 2

Three-tone...7 small third

Root sound...5 > small third


In addition to the five commonly used seven chords mentioned above, there are many other types of seventh chords, such as increasing the seventh chord, the big seventh chord, and the like.


Hanging chords (usually with 4 degrees hanging): Raise the three tones of the three chords by a semitone or a full tone, making it 4 degrees from the root. Thereby forming a hanging chord. Such as: Dsus4


Nine chords:

A chord that is superimposed on a three-degree interval by five tones. Place two thirds above the third chord. This root has a distance of nine degrees, so it is called a nine-chord. Generally, there is only one chord, which is a nine-chord.

Nine sounds...6

Seven sounds...4

Five sounds... 2


Root sound...5

Edit by Height Musical Instrument Co.,ltd News Department